Everything that you need to troubleshoot can be done from the new Control panel (very nice) and the classic Control Panel.

Also see
Run & CMD Commands

Vista Error Code List

MSKB Errors

note by chasms.com

 

Overview of Windows Vista

Windows Vista is here at last. One of the largest software projects ever undertaken, Vista is indisputably a milestone despite Microsoft's having abandoned many of its most ambitious goals for the OS and not just for Microsoft but for the entire PC industry.

Fastest Selling OS

Windows Vista® has become the fastest-selling operating system in history, with more than 100 million licenses sold. And counting. If you haven’t tried Windows Vista yet, it’s time to give the operating system a look for yourself. Windows Vista is already delivering tangible benefits to customers.

Security

For example, it can help enterprises better control costs and optimize their desktop infrastructures and help mid-sized businesses improve their security, mobility, and productivity.